High School Statutory Authority: Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Chemistry or concurrent enrollment in Chemistry. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10, 11, or In Aquatic Science, students study the interactions of biotic and abiotic components in aquatic environments, including impacts on aquatic systems. Investigations and field work in this course may emphasize fresh water or marine aspects of aquatic science depending primarily upon the natural resources available for study near the school. Students who successfully complete Aquatic Science will acquire knowledge about a variety of aquatic systems, conduct investigations and observations of aquatic environments, work collaboratively with peers, and develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Science, as defined by the National Academy of Sciences, is the “use of evidence to construct testable explanations and predictions of natural phenomena, as well as the knowledge generated through this process. Students should know that some questions are outside the realm of science because they deal with phenomena that are not scientifically testable. Scientific inquiry is the planned and deliberate investigation of the natural world.
The Fossil Record
The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks.
Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in “zeroing” laboratory instruments.
I would love it if folks from could visit Fossil Rim in Glen Rose, TX, where they have physical evidence of man and dinosaur coexisting (human footprint within that of a dinosaur’s).
Were Darwin’s Galapagos Finches Evolution? What does happen in a population as the genome reacts to the environment? Darwin looks at the finches on the Galapagos Islands and notices variations in beak size. He thought that the harder seed in the dry time was causing the beaks of the finches to grow stouter from the use of the part. But what was happening was that natural selection or a long term drought in the islands was causing the seed cases to harden. The heavier beaked finch allele in the genome was favored and the lighter beaked finch allele was not.
The heavier beaked finch became more dominant because it passed on the heavy beak alleles.
Thus, in trying to imagine how the universe works, it made good sense to people in ancient times to start with those apparent truths. The ancient Greek thinkers, particularly Aristotle, set a pattern that was to last for about 2, years: Shortly after the beginning of the Christian era, that basic concept was transformed into a powerful mathematical model by an Egyptian astronomer, Ptolemy.
His model of perfect circular motions served well for predicting the positions of the sun, moon, and stars.
[ Economic reasons are the main hurdle to new nuclear plants now, with capital costs so high it’s almost impossible to get a loan, especially when natural gas is so much cheaper and less risky.
A phenotypic characteristic, acquired during growth and development, that is not genetically based and therefore cannot be passed on to the next generation for example, the large muscles of a weightlifter. Any heritable characteristic of an organism that improves its ability to survive and reproduce in its environment. Also used to describe the process of genetic change within a population, as influenced by natural selection.
A graph of the average fitness of a population in relation to the frequencies of genotypes in it. Peaks on the landscape correspond to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is high, valleys to genotypic frequencies at which the average fitness is low. Also called a fitness surface. A behavior has adaptive logic if it tends to increase the number of offspring that an individual contributes to the next and following generations.
If such a behavior is even partly genetically determined, it will tend to become widespread in the population. Then, even if circumstances change such that it no longer provides any survival or reproductive advantage, the behavior will still tend to be exhibited — unless it becomes positively disadvantageous in the new environment.
For example, rock layers show the sequence of geological events, and the presence and amount of radioactive elements in rocks make it possible to determine their ages. Analyses of rock formations and the fossil record are used to establish relative ages. In an undisturbed column of rock, the youngest rocks are at the top, and the oldest are at the bottom. Rock layers have sometimes been rearranged by tectonic forces; rearrangements can be seen or inferred, such as from inverted sequences of fossil types.
The rock record reveals that events on Earth can be catastrophic, occurring over hours to years, or gradual, occurring over thousands to millions of years.
* The Scablands: The primary surface features of the Scablands, which cover thousands of square miles of eastern Washington, were long believed to have formed gradually.
Before the scientific era, people often made up imaginative stories to explain what they saw in the world. The scientific method changed that by requiring rigorous experimentation to test hypotheses and determine what is real. With the Theory of Evolution, people are back to making up imaginative stories. The primary advantage of complete metamorphosis is eliminating competition between the young and old.
Larval insects and adult insects occupy very different ecological niches. Whereas caterpillars are busy gorging themselves on leaves, completely disinterested in reproduction, butterflies are flitting from flower to flower in search of nectar and mates. Because larvas and adults do not compete with one another for space or resources, more of each can coexist relative to species in which the young and old live in the same places and eat the same things. Ultimately, the impetus for many of life’s astounding transformations also explains insect metamorphosis: Nevertheless,"biologists have established a plausible narrative about the origin of insect metamorphosis, which they continue to revise as new information surfaces.
In response to this unfavorable situation, some pro-nymphs gained a new talent: If such pro-nymphs emerged from their eggs before they reached the nymphal stage, they would have been able to continue feeding themselves in the outside world. Over the generations, these infant insects may have remained in a protracted pro-nymphal stage for longer and longer periods of time, growing wormier all the while and specializing in diets that differed from those of their adult selves–consuming fruits and leaves, rather than nectar or other smaller insects.
Carbon, Radiometric Dating
He was married for 10 years and has been divorced for about 2. His ex still gives him a hard time, but he says that he has moved on. He has custody of one child and she the other. We spend majority of our time together. He said that he expected me to pull back, but not cut it off completely. Then, he back peddled and said he prays daily for god to release some of the things in his life.
Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils (like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old).
Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.
Geologists have known for quite some time that multiple laminae may form very rapidly. French creation scientist Guy Berthault performed groundbreaking laboratory experiments demonstrating that multiple laminations can form spontaneously when sediment mixtures consisting of particles of different sizes are deposited in air, running water, or still water.
This occurs because particles of different sizes have a tendency to spontaneously segregate and stratify themselves. Even uniformitarian geologists have acknowledged that stratification can occur quickly. Almost ten years later, the results of similar experiments were published in Nature Makse et al.
RSR’s List of Not So Old Things
This article will explain how carbon dating is supposed to work and then show you the serious flaws with this process. It is derived from a transcript of Dr. His videos and materials are not copyrighted.
This is a review of evolution and creation doctrine. This site exposes poor science and assumptions associated with evolutionary theory, and presents compelling scientific evidence for Divine Creation—evidences in the fields of physics, biology, geology, and many other areas of science.
The concept was originally derived in ecology and has been transferred to analyse human industrial society. This marks the edge of The Net Energy Cliff and it is clear that new Green technologies designed to save humanity from CO2 may kill humanity through energy starvation instead. Fossil fuels remain comfortably away from the cliff edge but march closer to it for every year that passes. The Cheetah symbolises an energy system living on the edge. I had never contemplated the concept before and I was immediately struck by its importance.
If we used more energy to get the energy we need to survive then we will surely perish. But recently I have received this via email from Nate: A new tier of people are aware of EROI but it is still very fringe idea? Are we wrong to believe that ERoEI is a fundamentally important metric of energy acquisition or is it simply that the work done to date is not sufficiently rigorous or presented in a way that economists and policy makers can understand.
At this point I will cast out a bold idea that money was invented as a proxy for energy because ERoEI was too complex to fathom. On the grand scheme of things: Before asking the IEA or whomever to start using ERoEI, the community producing these estimates must come down to a common, accepted methodology for its assessment. And while I disagree with Luis on a number of issues, on this statement I totally concur.
ERoEI for Beginners
Consider also the most popular explanation offered for the photo right , that a concretion formed around an s-era hammer as minerals precipitated out of the surrounding limestone. From Adam until Real Science Radio , in only generations! Another paper, in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology Eugenie Scott ‘s own field on High mitochondrial mutation rates , shows that one mitochondrial DNA mutation occurs every other generation, which, as creationists point out , indicates that mtEve would have lived about generations ago.
That’s not so old! As our List of Not So Old Things this web page reveals, by a kneejerk reaction evolutionary scientists assign ages of tens or hundreds of thousands of years or at least just long enough to contradict Moses’ chronology in Genesis.
Figure 2. How relative dating of events and radiometric (numeric) dates are combined to produce a calibrated geological time scale. In this example, the data demonstrates that"fossil B time” was somewhere between and million years ago, and that"fossil A .
Can science prove the age of the earth? No scientific method can prove the age of the earth and the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Further, it has to be assumed that the clock was never disturbed. There is no independent natural clock against which those assumptions can be tested. For example, the amount of cratering on the moon, based on currently observed cratering rates, would suggest that the moon is quite old. However, to draw this conclusion we have to assume that the rate of cratering has been the same in the past as it is now.
And there are now good reasons for thinking that it might have been quite intense in the past, in which case the craters do not indicate an old age at all see below. No scientific method can prove the age of the earth or the universe, and that includes the ones we have listed here. Ages of millions of years are all calculated by assuming the rates of change of processes in the past were the same as we observe today—called the principle of uniformitarianism.
If the age calculated from such assumptions disagrees with what they think the age should be, they conclude that their assumptions did not apply in this case, and adjust them accordingly.
19 TAC Chapter , Subchapter C
Reproduction and development[ edit ] Compsobuthus werneri female with young white A few arthropods, such as barnacles , are hermaphroditic , that is, each can have the organs of both sexes. However, individuals of most species remain of one sex their entire lives. However, most arthropods rely on sexual reproduction , and parthenogenetic species often revert to sexual reproduction when conditions become less favorable.
All known terrestrial arthropods use internal fertilization. Opiliones harvestmen , millipedes , and some crustaceans use modified appendages such as gonopods or penises to transfer the sperm directly to the female. However, most male terrestrial arthropods produce spermatophores , waterproof packets of sperm, which the females take into their bodies.
Potassium-argon ‘dates’ of recent Mt. Ngauruhoe lava flows. As you can see from the ‘dates’ in the above table the lava flows that were less than 55 years old were given dates from , years to million plus or minus 20 thousand years.
One of the very foundations of evolution and popular science today is the “geologic column. Although not found in all locations and although it varies in thickness as well as the numbers of layers present, this column can be found generally over the entire globe. Many of its layers can even be found on top of great mountains – such as Mt. Everest and the American Rockies.
In some places, such as the mile deep Grand Canyon, the layers of the column have been revealed in dramatic display. Certainly the existence of the column and its layered nature is quite clear, but what does it mean? Is it really a record of millions and even billions of years of Earth’s history? Or, viewed from a different perspective perhaps, does it say something else entirely? As one looks at the geologic column, it is obvious that the contact zones, between the various layers, are generally very flat and smooth relative to each other though the layers may be tilted relative to what is currently horizontal or even warped since their original “flat” formation.
Many of the layers extend over hundreds of thousands of square miles and yet their contact zones remain as smooth and parallel with each other as if sheets of glass were laid on top of one another before they were warped. And yet, each layer is supposed to have formed over thousands if not millions of years? Wouldn’t it be logical to assume that there should be a fair amount of weathering of each of these layers over that amount of time? But this expected uneven weathering is generally lacking see illustration.
Long term erosion always results in uneven surfaces and this unevenness is only accentuated over time.
Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale
For example, when you ask an evolutionist how they come up with the age of the sedimentary layers in the earth, they will always tell you they date them by the fossils found in those sedimentary layers. But how can that be? How can the rocks date the layers, if the layers date the rocks?
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
Acknowledgements Introduction his document discusses the way radiometric dating and stratigraphic principles are used to establish the conventional geological time scale. It is not about the theory behind radiometric dating methods, it is about their application, and it therefore assumes the reader has some familiarity with the technique already refer to “Other Sources” for more information. As an example of how they are used, radiometric dates from geologically simple, fossiliferous Cretaceous rocks in western North America are compared to the geological time scale.
To get to that point, there is also a historical discussion and description of non-radiometric dating methods. A common form of criticism is to cite geologically complicated situations where the application of radiometric dating is very challenging. These are often characterised as the norm, rather than the exception.